Un espoir aussi fort T1 : Les années de fer (French Edition)

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Zahran M. Pour les dates de radio-carbone, voir Van der Veen Fort avec puits au centre. Newton en prep. You can suggest to your library or institution to subscribe to the program OpenEdition Freemium for books. Feel free to give our address: contact openedition. We will be glad to provide it with information about OpenEdition and its subscription offers. Thank you. We will forward your request to your library as soon as possible. OpenEdition is a web platform for electronic publishing and academic communication in the humanities and social sciences.

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Zoom in Original jpeg, k. List of illustrations Title Fig. Author s Marijke Van der Veen. Claire Newton. Read Open Access. Freemium Recommend to your library for acquisition. ISBN: DOI: Veen, M. In Brun, J. Veen, Marijke Van der, et al..

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Brun, Jean-Pierre, et al.. New edition [online]. Brun, Jean-Pierre, et al. Your e-mail has be sent. Size: small x px Medium x px Large x px. Catalogue Author s Publishers Selections Excerpts. Type de site. Nom du site nom actuel. Nb de litres 0,5 mm. Nb de litres 2 mm. Nb total de restes de plantes alimentaires hors balle. Myos Hormos Quseir al-Qadim. Mons Claudianus. Mons Porphyrites. Van der Veen, Tabinor Fortins Praesidia. Didymoi Kasm al-Menih. Choux, navet. Rue des jardins. Poivre noir. Noix de coco. Haricot mungo. Badamier blanc. Riz 1. IR: So, I think we both have a real interest in the politics of fear and the kind of instability that it brings and how it is instrumentalised politically.

The question is, what is it that one can do about the politics of fear, because one thing I think we all know is that you cannot explain away fear. The classroom, for me, is a place, a political space where I can address fear as a calculated politics rather than an intuitive response.

And not just fear of Islamic extremism — fear of unemployment, fear of precarity, fear of a futureless world ….


IR: … fear of yourself, fear of the fact that your education and your knowledge are not buying you a future the way they used to buy you a future, or in the way you had been promised a future. IR: So we have many levels of fear and I think that we are honour-bound as practitioners of whatever to find a way of dealing with fear. KA: The thing is that fear nowadays has become a business, a trade.

Fear is connected to capitalism. I have to say that when I was reading, I think it was a Hezbollah chief in the s who took this from Iran — I put the quote yesterday in the lecture — he was saying that at the end of the day, the only thing any enemy can do is create the fear of losing our lives. They have weapons to remove lives, and the psychological power they use is based on the fear we have of losing our lives.

If we consider and accept that the ultimate accomplishment of life is in death, in suicide, in martyrdom, then their power collapses because their power is based on fear. It is probably a legend but powerful enough to have deeply impacted the local psyche, and even now many Israeli people bring their children to the Masada Mountain. It has become a kind of pilgrimage. We can observe this in other contexts, with other communities still in the Middle East, like in Iran. Imam Hussein was the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad. He was slaughtered with his family and relatives by the army of the Sultan of Damascus.

Today the martyrdom of the Imam Hussein is still celebrated every year with blood by all Shia communities worldwide. In Iran, the reactivation of this legend had only one goal: to create a new generation of soldier-believers ready to die for the Islamic Revolution. So, the invention of such a thing proves that the reactivation of the myth of martyrdom can be readapted to a political agenda. The thing is, the struggle against fear is definitely becoming an ideological process, an act of resistance. I think if the notion of fear in the last two decades has turned into something political, it has to be understood as part of the new geopolitical order, from economy to religion.

IR: I suppose we have to acknowledge that beyond security fear is also central to neo-liberal ideology. KA: Of course. She writes that Milton Friedman had been in touch with a psychiatrist who survived the concentration camps, and what he saw there convinced him that what humans will do out of fear, or even worse out of the fear of fear, is by far the worst. And Pinochet exemplifies this policy — there were tortures and kidnappings, most of the population disappeared and it was impossible to find the bodies.

The fact that the kidnapped students were never found created far more fear than if they had been. So everyone was very scared by this fascist strategy of power. On the other hand, what Margaret Thatcher did also intended to generate another type of fear — the socio-economical fear I was talking about before: losing your job, your house etc. The notions of sacrifice and harmony obviously go along the lines of many of the things I was talking about during the lecture, but not only that.

Sacrifice brings harmony to the group. Before we sacrificed animals, we used to sacrifice humans. Then we started to sacrifice animals because some people were affected by the disappearance of some of their relatives, but the notion of sacrifice remains fundamental to make the group not only compact but also balanced. But nowadays, from one civilisation to the next, the notion of sacrifice for the harmony of the group has taken a global turn because we are facing the age of globalisation and the end of distances.

IR: So you are saying sacrifice within a neo-liberal world system becomes the inability to not be entirely embedded within its logic? Is it clear for you that individuals have no choice but to live in the neo-liberal system of sacrifice? For me, this is the issue I really want to raise with the exhibition. The relationship we have with death within these post-Modern neo-liberal systems is completely occluded by the illusion of living in peace.

This form of fake peace is also very important. And then, with a very primitive cinematographic effect, you have this silhouette of a man coming out of the graves and walking towards the camera. The thing which I found extremely interesting is that all the actors here are real former soldiers, the broken faces of the First World War. Did you know that the First World War, because of the incredible power of the weapons and the contrast between these already extremely powerful weapons and the very classical technics of battle, produced I think 6.

There were like 2 million in France, 1. Most of them ultimately went to psychiatric hospitals. They were repaired, but the way society looked at them, seeing them like monsters, destroyed them — not the weapons, but the reactions. In Senegal I was sculpting basically with wood. Then, I discovered that the pieces of wood I was working with were the same age as the injured soldiers represented in each sculpture — years.

So, there will be a dialogue between the screen, this movie of Abel Gance and the huge installation of wooden busts representing a crowd of injured soldiers. Because it is absolutely insane to understand how these people, who were even scared by their own representation, their own new faces, accepted being screened in a movie. They actually believed that pacifism was an emergency for their time. IR: You are talking about a kind of new monstrosity, a sort of twentieth-century monstrosity.

And I think the difference between the previous moments of monstrosity, medieval monstrosity and so on, is the fact that, there, monstrosity has a very acceptable place within a certain kind of cultural narrative, influenced by religious values that life was habituated in. So, as there is no interpretative community for the monstrosity of the First World War, so it becomes detritus, it becomes the exception and it is pushed out.

But it begins to raise for us a new question. After a whole set of wars — not the Second World War, which has a kind of different place in the consciousness, but Vietnam, the Gulf Wars, again and again, Cambodia, Afghanistan — there is an inability to reintegrate a certain kind of experience back into the general cultural narrative. So your historical narrative starts us there, but how do we contemporise it? How do we make it part of a general cultural problematic of fear, because I think part of the inability to integrate is about illusions of the necessity of war for well-being.

If wars are being argued as absolutely necessary to re-establish well-being, monstrosity cannot therefore be reintegrated into that narrative because it goes against the grain of the ultimate success of the war as re-establishing well-being. I also think that there is a capitalist narrative to what you call repair and to what I call the inability to reintegrate, because I think one of the great rhetorics of capitalism is that it can fix anything.

KA: Capitalism aims at even more than fixing; it creates your new addiction, which makes the old ones obsolete. First of all, and if indeed we consider the First World War as the paroxysm of Modernity, it is, in the light of monstrosity, a complete paradox. I was interested in the injured faces of soldiers initially because the First World War is, at this point in human history, probably the strongest conflict between two eras — the Classical age and the Modern one. Of course, Modernity as a concept started much earlier, but technically and technologically its culminating point and paroxysm is the First World War.

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Weaponry became so powerful, whereas the battlefield was still using the classic techniques of charging and trenches. This helped me understand how much war and creation — war and art — work together in a very narrow, complementary and interdependent process, echoing the endless processes of life in the universe, which at some point are embodied and personified, and representing the notion of repair.

Because there is no repair if there is no injury somewhere. Conceptually you cannot conceive of the notion of repair without an injury. Repair is fed by injury and vice-versa. I would really like you to elaborate more on it. KA: What do you mean? They had no other choice than to repair them like a broken piece of wood. The very early repairs I observed in the archives, between and , are extremely rough.

Some people were repaired with a simple piece of wire or a string of leather. Then, slowly but surely, the evolution of repair during the entire First World War became more and more sophisticated. KA: Reconstitutions in which surgeons sometimes used bones prostheses, wooden prostheses, resin prostheses for the missing parts of the face. The further you go into the First World War, I mean as it gets closer to its end, in , the clearer it becomes that the main goal for facial injury operations is the complete disappearance of the incurred injuries.

For instance, traditionally, if a broken pot, a broken mask, a broken shield was repaired, was fixed by the repairer, this repair had to be visible. We have forgotten to focus on such things. I recently interviewed a plastic surgeon in Paris, Maurice Mimoun, director of a department of plastic surgery in Paris. It has to express the injury in a post-injury state: the repaired. The person who repairs the calabash, the plate or a body has to leave something visible so we understand that the piece was repaired.

Maybe you remember these Japanese ceramic pots that are broken and then repaired. The object gets a new life, a new start. Metaphorically you can explain many things with this. A capitalist logic tells us that the offence and the means to repair it produce one another, are part of the same logic. So, the progress of modernity is always what you call a work of repair, the ability to find new solutions for a whole new set of offences that we have created. But parallel to that is the theory of capitalism, which absolutely refuses any kind of a history. And certainly refuses any inscription of offence.

Capitalism is non-offensive. When you become a plastic surgeon, you just get people who want to come back. This is impossible. Indeed capitalism takes part in the denial of history, and we can observe the complete opposite in traditional repair I am thinking of non-Western cultures and Western cultures prior to Modernity. This is what we learnt from Michel Feher, that the principle of neo-liberal capital is the accumulation of credit not of wealth. And credit is a promise for the future.

On the basis of credit, you can grow, you can expand, you can have wider horizons, etc. We know that, this is hardly new to either of us, but the question is what do you do, how do you make these logics talk to one another. But capitalism itself is a huge paradox. Every time the market crashed between and today, it was due to credit and speculative bubbles. The problem today is that the banks via brokers and traders that lost a considerable amount of money during the crises, which they were partly responsible for by lending money to insolvent people, are always bailed out with public money.

As I explained before, repair cannot exist without injury, in this sense I think the notion of repair is an oxymoron. It really becomes clear when we consider how scarification has always been mapping social structures in non-Western, non-Modern societies — Western or non-Western — because scarification was practiced in Europe during the Middle Ages.

But this too is another issue, because scarification was in fact a medical process. The fascinating thing here is that from nature to culture, injury and its process of repair have always been working through a kind of paradox, which always leads to an oxymoron. You said something very important — how to think about this in a contemporary way. I think that nothing is more contemporary than the fear of a new major conflict right now. It was just before the Second World War. We are going directly to the big war. The heroic act of these broken faces is to transgress their own fear of being seen.

Many years ago, I wanted to make a movie with someone in Paris who was completely burnt. I used to work in a bar and he was an everyday customer, a very nice guy from Serbia, Goran. One day I told him I would like to make a movie. So now we can come back to the fixed objects. Because if you go today to traditional societies, even in Africa where I spend half of my life , you find broken plastic baskets I can show you pictures repaired in a traditional way.

The dictate of the whole consumerist and capitalist process says that when the basket is broken, you buy a new one. A concept that exists with its own paradox, the injury. As soon as there is injury there can be repair somewhere, but there is more, before and beyond our cultural understanding. When Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace described the theory of evolution by saying that a living species cannot last if it becomes unable to adapt to the evolution of its environment, it means that a portion of the chain has to be able to adapt to its environment but not all of its members.

Natural selection is repair. It repairs the weakness and inadaptability of certain members by resisting against the disappearance of the entire species. Natural selection is due to an unconscious survival instinct that every living system is moved by. KA: Exactly. Some years ago there was an amazing documentary showing this bird in the middle of the Papua New Guinea forest. This is because like any living species on earth, these birds come from a long evolutionary chain.

Wallace thought that there was a supernatural force behind this, but for Darwin, who was utterly convinced by determinism, this was random chance. So, what should we make of this controversy? Within any species, the flaws are repaired, otherwise the species would collapse. Repair is a matter of life. If you take bees, for instance, you have thousands of different species of bees, but they have all adapted to the context of their environment — the bees in Sweden are not the same as the bees in Israel etc.

KA: The important point is that I do believe that repair is either at the origin of everything or articulating everything. If you start to observe because watching has never been enough , you will have a hard time getting rid of such conclusions. Anything you look at — this door for instance — results from repair: there are two steps between the previous and the current state.

Originally it was a piece of wood until the human hand decided to transform, cut and carve it and intervened culturally according to the natural process of agency.

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But, if you keep the repair of injuries at a distance and consider together the traditional cultures and the way they created injuries to have traces on the body scarification , the fact that when natural species that were about to collapse within their environment had to reinvent themselves and create variation to continue, if politically you try to understand whether democracy or capitalism are ideological processes of repair, if you find a complementary dialogue between art as a creative process and war as destructive process that are both completely linked and occur one after the other, only then can you really map the entire history of humanity on the fundamental process of death, creation, destruction, repair.

And this for me is very interesting as a key to understanding the agency of mankind. Most of the time I do think that creating art, any kind of art, from music to poetry, is a deep instance of repair. Heidegger used to say that if mankind had been immortal, art would probably not exist. According to him art aims at existing beyond the finitude, either for the group or the individual.

Art might be animated by an instinct of staying alive in the universe. This is, to me, mystical. I find mysticism difficult to accept. However, how does one do this work as an artist, as opposed to an anthropologist or an activist? What kind of agency does this perception give one as an artist? KA: I think there is something interesting when you said something about capitalism and this eternal now, or present. You know, everything is linked to a particular life form, a particular kind of fieldwork, a set of observations — this bird, this lizard, and so on.

KA: But you know, sorry to interrupt you, Wallace was a mystic. Right now, tell me about how the understanding of a whole set of historical and contemporary cycles as the mechanism of repair — which I think I now understand — how does this give you agency as an artist. This is what I want to finish with. We call this culture.

When I arrived here, I touched the door and I found it beautiful because of its physical presence not because of its image. But if they stop training for a month, theirs will sound different. IR: Well, you see, I think that I actually see it very differently. This is where, for me, the agency comes.

And this really goes back to the very first question I asked you yesterday: What is the power of generalisation? KA: Between practice and theory there is a narrow space which both separates and binds those very different positions. So, to get back to your question, I find the notion of inconsistency to be exactly what I believe and defend, even as a new or different methodology of thinking and working.

And indeed, intellectuals and scholars should sometimes mimic artists and art practices to be innovative, or at least as an alternative breath outside of the academic framework. IR: I think this is a very good moment to stop. Thank you very much for joining me for this conversation. Kader Attia, who was born in Paris in and grew up in Algeria and the suburbs of the French metropolis, takes the experience of his life in two cultures as the point of departure for his artistic praxis.

For his investigation of the far-reaching impact of colonialism and Western cultural hegemony on non-Western cultures he adopts a poetic symbolic approach and enquires into the identity politics of historical and colonial eras against the background of a globalised world. For several years, Attia has been focusing his research on the concept of repair as a constant in nature and human culture. In a variety of areas that appear heterogeneous at first sight — for example, architecture, science, philosophy, economy and gender — he examines the contrary systems of the modern West and traditional non-Western cultures.

And what he observes is that every system of life is an endless process of repair. Since that time he has been invited to continue his approach in numerous solo and group shows. Kader Attia uses the example of things he finds in the storerooms of ethnological museums — objects repaired by their original owners and therefore usually not placed on display — to illustrate two different models of repair.

The patched vessels, statuettes, writing tablets and so on openly display their seams and pegs and thus their respective histories. The Western concept of repair, on the other hand, is guided by the ideal of the flawless recreation of the original state. In the consumer society cycle, defective objects are disposed of and replaced by new ones. The repair itself remains invisible, and is thus tantamount to an obliteration of history.

In many of his works, Attia is now applying these two models to a wide range of different areas of knowledge and techniques while at the same time depriving them of unambiguous classification by pointing out comparable phenomena in the respective other cultural realm. He thus pursues a kind of reappropriation that makes reference both to the foreignness of the other culture and to elements of our own culture that are isolated and repressed. Sacrifice and Harmony describes a path of experience and a path of cognition.

The artist considered the individual works and positions in the circular tour with the greatest care and repeatedly changed them. He attaches the utmost importance to their sequence. In this respect the architecture of the MMK presents a challenge as it does not dictate a strict succession of rooms. The central hall alone offers the visitor seven options for continuing through the museum. It is a space that does not support the idea of chronology, nor does any space in the building. The open structure adheres to a different principle. Why this insistence on a fixed sequence?

It indicates an initial state which has undergone breakage, disturbance or injury, a trauma. Through the act of repair, a new state is attained. The majority of his works have a more or less obvious relationship to historical facts and artefacts. As a process, repair thus denotes a development. The changes brought about by a repair link two states with one another; they represent an evolutionary process. For Attia, it is not the concept of adaptation that is crucial but that of repair. Because of the fact that he conceives of the evolution of species, of societies — indeed, of civilisation and cultures — as an unending process of creation, destruction and repair, we can justifiably speak here of a continuum of repair.

In a spectrum ranging from the ability of the human body to close a cut in the skin to the ability of societies to reform again and again, to respond to other societies and merge with them, we can observe an analogous principle. The methods of repair, however, are multifarious and in the case of sacrificial rituals paradoxical. The idea of coping with crisis through renewed loss initially seems absurd. Again and again exceptional emergency situations, hunger, epidemics and so forth can lead to human sacrifices. The constant renewal of the year is likewise dramatically accentuated by sacrifices celebrating the annihilation of the old in favour of the new.

The depiction of this history of thought gives us an opportunity to better understand the responsibility we bear in the present situation and to avoid repeating the mistakes of the past. In times of escalating horror and fear, of the terror spreading throughout the world and producing new and more shocking images every day, the artist undertakes to rethink the ideational history of sacrifice in connection with his concept of repair. To do so, he takes architectural examples, various concepts of the healing of traumatic experiences, and the world wars still relevant today as his models, which will be considered more closely in the following.

The path described by the exhibition begins with Los de arriba y los de abajo , a huge installation from which the visitor must walk through. Wire mesh has been stretched over the space between two rows of metal roller blinds to the left and right and is strewn from above with rubbish and refuse. This oppressive, claustrophobic situation of confinement and abasement was inspired by the actual conditions in the city of Hebron. The horizontal division of entire streets into Palestinian shops on the ground floor and the flats of Jewish settlers on the upper floors led to such construction measures.

In its entirety the work represents an essay on psychiatric pathology as it is perceived in traditional non-Western cultures on the one hand and modern Western societies on the other. The approaches and possible interpretations differ, however, in both the description of the causes and the methods of treatment. Every one of the films is assembled from fragments of the respective interview.

This results in collages of the approaches and viewpoints that bring home the fact that neither the conflicts nor the proposals for their solutions can be deduced from a single cause. It is a kind of thought that resists the force of its own respective system. It does not resist change through exchange without losing itself in the process. The concept of visible repair is directed against amnesia. Seams and scars are testimonies to a history.

Eighteen larger than life-size wooden busts stand as silent observers before a wall projection showing a brief excerpt from a film by the French director Abel Gance — The second film closes with a powerfully eerie scene in which the protagonist — as a last resort in his efforts to warn the world — summons the dead of the battlefields of Verdun to set out in a gruesome parade.

Not only do the graves open up; monuments erected to commemorate the soldiers killed in action also come to life. To the horror of the people living there, the ghastly procession makes its way through cities and villages. After that war, the shocking photos of these victims had frequently been published in anti-war literature, for example War against War! The scarred faces of the wounded, which plastic surgeons had attempted to salvage in countless operations, bear horrible witness to a suppressed past while at the same time presaging the coming atrocities.

They are testimonies to injury and attempted repair. By translating the photos into wooden busts, a different act of repair has now been performed. The artist thus reminds us that several African countries were involved in the First World War as colonial territories of the belligerent parties and had suffered thousands of losses.

The wood from which the busts were carved was chosen according to its age: it is approximately as old as the people it depicts. The exhibition closes with a work to which the meaning of a sum can be attributed. Every change is preceded by a disruption, decline or demise; the parts constituting the former state merge in an unforeseeable manner to form a new whole. The sphere consisting of many fragments of mirrors alludes to the concept of repair as a universal principle. The sphere has been used since antiquity as an image of the cosmos, unity and continuity.

Yet unlike the gapless sphere of being described by Parmenides, the wholeness of this work by Attia is full of seams and cracks. The gaps between the shards afford a view of the interior and the infinite reflections that render both the individual fragments and the repairs an inconcludable process of refraction. The plurality of perspective, it would appear, counters the ossification of thought and feeling.

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Sacrifice and Harmony, exh. Il va falloir en changer. Simple opposition de styles? He inverts the term to articulate the chaos that lies behind the internalised rendering of that which has been pathologically harmed or forcibly removed. For while it may succeed in eradicating signs of a damaged past, it also reconstitutes trauma through artificial means creating multiple somatic remainders and prosthetic monuments to that which is no longer there.

Like an activist of the mind, he forges subtle and unexpected paths that penetrate the exclusive portals of occidental bibliophilia. His installations are recognised for their vast structures laden with volumes of twentieth century books and publications. Against these shelved remnants of modernist capital, he produces new unforeseeable dialogues. He manages to cross-fertilize advanced academia with meanings from the periphery by tapping into the experience and folk wisdom located in marginalised territories.

Steel shrapnel, mirror fragments, glass mosaic, wire mesh, copper filaments, iron staples, rubber, string, cardboard and wood together build the fallen matter that Attia engages with. Grand yet humble, like the offerings of a market-stall holder at the end of the day, these small goods, however desolate, represent the world. Glimpsing through the gaps, a shiny multitude of autonomous elements appears, each with its distinctive colour, shape and geography.

Each thing, fabricated and manipulated by someone, bears the tangible biography of this person and their relations to others. He reinstates the signature of the modest man who fixes the broken calabash, adapting it with care so as to restore its original function. Repair makes something operational once again, transforming its ontology in ways that the original maker had not predicated.

Whether looped together by hand using the age-old method of embroidery, or soldered through robot-assisted nanotechnology, ultimately this corrective and recursive process produces the same outcome. The archetypal chain stitch of remedial surgery is repeated ad infinitum , its technicity updated in the eternal hope of improving the human condition. He draws us back to the forensic qualities of daily existence located between the macro-politics of socio-religious collapse and the intimate injuries, ruptures and dislocations borne by individuals. Unrelenting, like the dogged pain of a phantom limb, his sculptures obliterate our critical distance.

They inject us with a split-second placebo that both releases and manipulates our expectations. Like a castle made of sand, once exhibited in a museum, it threatens to crumble and dissolve, demanding impossible forms of reconstruction and conservation. This is where his methodology of analogical thinking becomes so acute. By employing a specific materiality gleaned from daily experience, he turns an aesthetic moment in colonial ideology on its head.

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So what happens when an artwork consciously invokes the viewer to compensate for the disequilibrium and absence that something or someone else has produced? By extension, what form of intellectual and aesthetic supplement is Kader Attia introducing through his work? For Attia is fascinated by forms that transport their own history and, more specifically, that echo the human body with its somatic charge.

Cosmetic surgery, for example, seeks to erase the lines of human aging such that the intervention of the scalpel dissolves entirely. But no organ can be sutured without affecting another point in the body. If you stitch skin, you pierce it: you harm in order to heal. Through this incision, the injury is remediated: the subject transgresses its original wounded state and a new topology emerges.

To do so, he splinters his artistic identity, cohabiting several disciplinary sectors in order to develop a revelatory technique, a choreography of relations between seemingly incongruous practices. Through his sculptures, collages, installations, performances and photography, Attia experiments with the limits and failures of analogical thinking. The correlations he sets up between ideas and things extend beyond the formalist affinities inscribed by Primitivism into twentieth century art and through which we have learned to accept correspondences between African masks and fauvist or expressionist painting.

A Sakalava funeral stake injured by time is embellished and repaired with small droplets of metal alloy; a Dogon mask acquires a shimmering and protective armour of mirrors. Smith Bagnall R. Greek Ostraka from the Seasons. Bender L. Ostraca Graeca et Latina I O. Documents de Fouilles 29, Documents de Fouilles 32, Bingen J. Bingen, A. Cockle, H. Cuvigny, L. Rubinstein, W. Van Rengen, Mons Claudianus. Documents de Fouilles 32, , Bouchaud C.

Brun, J. Brun J. Documents de Fouilles 29, , Volume 2. Cappers R. Neumann, A. Butler and S. Paleo-Aktueel 16, , Clapham A. Farbairn and E. Hillman , Oxford, Oxbow Books, , Cuvigny H. Cuvigny H, Mons Claudianus. Dijkstra and G. Leuven, Peeters, , Dalby A. Traduction T. Osbaldeston et R. Wood, Johannesburg, Ibidis Press, Fuller D. Stevens, S. Nixon, M. Maxfield et D. Survey and Excavations at Mons Porphyrites Hamilton-Dyer S.

Peacock et L. International Series ; University of Southampton. Series in Archaeology, 6 , Ikram S. Meyer, Bir Umm Fawakhir 3. Konen H. Leguilloux M. Maxfield V. Mattingly et J. Peacock et V. Meyer C. Bir Umm Fawakhir 3. Nicholson et I.

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